Anterior Pelvic Tilt Influence on Squat Mechanics

anterior pelvic tilt influences squat mechanicsI feel like we’ve been discussing anterior pelvic tilt lately in several articles and an Inner Circle webinar on my strategies for fixing anterior pelvic tilt.  I wanted to show a video of a great example of how a simple assessment really tells you a lot about how pelvic positioning should influence how we coach exercises such as squats and deadlifts.

If you haven’t had a chance to read my past article on how anterior pelvic tilt influences hip range of motion, you should definitely start there.

In this video, I have a great example of a client that has limited knee to chest mobility and with boney impingement.  However, if we abduct the leg a bit, it clears the rim of the hip and has full mobility with no impingement.

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As you can see, because he is in anterior pelvic tilt, he is prepositioned to start the motion in hip flexion, so therefor looks like he has limited mobility.  I have a past article on how anterior pelvic tilt influence hip flexion mobility, which discusses this a little more.

While you are working on their anterior pelvic tilt, you can work around some of their limitations.  I hate when people say there is only one way to squat or deadlift.

Our anatomy is so different for each individual.

Some need a wider stance while others need more narrow.  Some need toes out while some need more neutral.  Do what works best for your body, not what the text book says you are supposed to look like.

 

 

4 Keys to Staying Healthy During the Baseball Season

The latest Inner Circle webinar recording on my 4 Keys to Staying Healthy During the Baseball Season is now available.

4 Keys to Staying Healthy During the Baseball Season

4 Keys to Staying Healthy During Baseball SeasonThis month’s Inner Circle webinar is on 4 Keys to Staying Healthy During the Baseball Season.  In this webinar I’ll discuss:

  • How and why injuries happen in baseball
  • What you should watch out for in regard to loss of mobility
  • My criteria you should achieve before picking up a ball everyday
  • The #1 thing I see youth players do wrong that causes injuries
  • How to maximize performance by minimizing overuse

To access this webinar:

The Effect of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Loading on Muscle Activity During the Lunge

One thing I talk about a lot when it comes to training and rehabilitation is the need to train the body in all three planes.  This often requires moving in one plane of motion and stabilizing in the other two.   We are often very good at moving in the sagittal plane, and poor at stabilizing in the transverse and frontal planes.  This is a big topic of discussion in my program Functional Stability Training of the Lower Body.

To enhance this triplanar stability, we often attempt to facilitate greater contraction of the gluteus medius muscle during sagittal plane exercises.  The lunge in particular is a great exercise for triplanar stability as the narrow stance challenges strength in the sagittal plane and stability in the transverse and frontal planes.

 

The Effect of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Loading on Muscle Activity During the Lunge

The Effect of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Loading on Muscle Activity During the LungeA recent study was published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research that investigated the effect of holding a dumbbell in either the contralateral or ipsilateral hand during a split squat and forward lunge.  (Note: they called it a “walking lunge” but I am 99% certain it was a forward lunge, so I’m just going to say forward lunger in this article…  probably just semantics.)

The study found that:

  • Holding the dumbbell on the ipsilateral side had no effect on glute med activity.
  • Holding the dumbbell on the contralateral side resulted in a significant increase in glute med activity, but only during the forward lunge, not the split squat.

I was a bit surprised that glute med activity was not impacted during the split squat, but perhaps the static nature of the position inherently requires less transverse and frontal plane stability.

There was one other finding from this study that I thought was interesting.  Kinematic differences during the forward lunge were found between a group of trained individuals in comparison to a group without training experience.

This makes sense as the forward lunge is a complex movement pattern that requires an understanding of how to control the pattern.  It requires both mobility and stability, but also the ability to control the eccentric deceleration phase.

contralateral lungeHowever, there were no kinematic differences between training age during the split squat, meaning that both novice and experienced trainees performed the split squat in a similar fashion.  This make split squats a great exercise to incorporate in the early phases of training for those with limited training experience, eventually progressing to forward lunge as they get better at moving and stabilizing the pattern.

This helps solidify the use of split squats in our lunge regression system.

 

Implications

I like simple studies like this.  Having the rationale to make small tweaks to your program is what sets you apart.  It’s the small things that may not be obvious at first but will produce better results over time.

Based on these results, I would recommend using the split squat with bilateral dumbbells to maximize strength gains since a unilateral load did not alter glute med activity.  The split squat is more of a basic exercise, so why not just use it to work on strength gains in the novice trainee.  As the person progresses, you can add the forward lunge variation with a contralateral load to enhance triplanar stability.

 

 

 

3 Systems You Need to Have in Place to Be an Elite Strength Coach

Systems.  That’s a word I say VERY frequently throughout the day at Champion PT and Performance.  Our center revolves around systems.

The two biggest mistakes I see with new personal trainers and strength coaches are very simple:

  • They don’t have a plan
  • They don’t have a system of developing a plan

One of my biggest pet peeves in this industry is just slapping together a bunch of exercises without a solid rationale.  This often happens when you pick the exercise first.  Maybe you just went to a new continuing education course and learned a new exercise, or you just read a new article on the web, or saw an exciting new exercise on Youtube.  You’re excited and want to try this shiny new exercise.

The second phase of our coaching evolution often revolves around understanding the fact that it’s better to build a solid program first, then fill in the exercises second.

That’s great, you’re evolving.  But…  my second biggest pet peeve is writing programs month-to-month.  I use the phrase “start with the end in mind” quite often when it comes to program design.  Most of our clients have clear goals that we should be prioritizing when designing their program.

If their season starts in 4-months, or their wedding is in 12-weeks, to achieve the best results we should assure the program is designed to peak and maximize their performance at the perfect time.  You can’t do this when writing programs month-to-month.  You need to have the program mapped out ahead of time.  Sure, you’ll probably tweak the program a few times as the client progresses, that’s the art of coaching, but it’s always better to start with the end in mind.

 

3 Systems You Need to Have in Place to Be an Elite Strength Coach

I really think that if you want to become an elite strength coach or personal trainer (or heck, physical therapist…), you need to have a few systems in place.  It really all comes down to developing systems to allow you to quickly and easily provide your expertise in a consistent and reliable fashion.

 

You Need to Have a Program Design System

Program design systemWhen we are just starting out in this field, program design is one of the most challenging aspects your job.  It’s because you don’t have a system in place and try to re-create the wheel each and every time you write someone a program.

It’s daunting,

You don’t need to sit down and start from scratch with each and every client.  You need a program design system to accomplishes the goals you’ve established and style of training you provide.

 

You Need to Have a Periodization System

Periodization SystemOnce you understand how to design a program, the next system to master is how to string together multiple programs.  This is essentially periodization.

Again, you don’t need to get fancy and mix this up for each and every client.  I’ve overview a a little bit of my periodization system for strength and rehabilitation in an Inner Circle webinar.

There are periodization schemes that fit well with specific goals and specific clients.  Developing a system of categorizing all this is the next step in becoming an elite coach.

 

You Need to Have a Coaching System

Assessing overhead shoulder mobilityLastly, it doesn’t matter how good of a program you can write, or how well you periodize the program, your results are going to suffer if you don’t know how to coach.

The third system that I think you need to reach that elite level is a coaching system.  This involves developing a consistent approach to cueing, analyzing technique, making adjustments, progressing and regressing exercises on the fly, and connecting with you clients in general.

Just like anything else, this can be a system as well.

 

How to Develop Your Own Systems

Systems take time and experience to develop.  This is natural.  But finding an excellent mentor and always seeking out continuing education is a great step.  You have to find what works for you.

I’ve learned so much from some of the experts in the field by studying their systems.  I am always assessing how other people do things and trying to determine which aspects of their system I can adopt and integrate into what I am currently doing myself.

Alwyn Cosgrove has done a great job outlining his systems in his educational work.  Mike Boyle has as well.  But the person that I can say I have probably learned the most from over the years is Mike Robertson.  As my readers know, I really connect to Mike’s style of coaching, ability to teach information, and his focus on developing his own systems.

 

Physical Preparation 101

physical preparation 101Luckily for us, Mike has just released his latest DVD which completely overviews his program design and coaching systems.  And when I say “completely overviews,” I mean it!  Mike has just release Physical Preparation 101, a whopping 12-DVD set that discussing exactly how Mike has built his systems.

I watched almost all of the 12 DVDs over the weekend and can say that if you don’t currently have a system in place, this is the resource you should invest in to begin developing your system.

The program is $100 off this week for the launch and a must have for all of our educational libraries.  Click below to save $100:

 

 

 

 

 

Periodization for Strength Training and Rehabilitation

The latest Inner Circle webinar recording on my Periodization for Strength Training and Rehabilitation is now available.

 

Periodization for Strength Training and Rehabilitation

Periodization for Strength Training and RehabilitationThis month’s Inner Circle webinar is on periodization for strength training and rehabilitation.  In this webinar I’ll discuss:

  • Why you need to understand periodization concepts to maximize strength
  • How to enhance strength by strategically changing aspects of your program to stimulate adaptations
  • The many different kinds of periodization and what really works
  • How I use linear, non-linear, and undulating periodization concepts
  • How to chose your periodization strategy based on the experience of the person
  • How to apply periodization concepts to rehabilitation

To access this webinar:

 

 

 

 

Does Periodization of a Program Help Improve Strength?

When designing programs to enhance strength, there are many variables that you can (and should) manipulate to facilitate improvement.  These can obviously include the sets and reps (volume), loads (intensity), frequency, and rest time (density).  However, how we periodize these variables is also very important.  Periodization is the systematic structuring of how you plan on manipulating these variables over time.

You probably know me well enough by now to know that I value systems and planning.  One of our fundamental principles in program design at Champion is to “begin with the end in mind.”  It drives me crazy to see programs written month-to-month without a goal in mind.

So it makes sense to develop a system of how you plan on periodizing your strength training, wether in the personal training, sports performance, or even rehabilitation setting.

While the strength and conditioning world has really embraced the concept of periodization, physical therapists are notorious for a complete lack of periodization.  It’s not uncommon to perform “3 sets of 10″ in the rehabilitation setting forever.

Perform a Google search for strength training periodization and you’ll find a sea of conflicting terminology that is likely to make you dizzy.  Linear periodization, reverse linear periodization, non-linear periodization, undulated periodization, conjugated periodization, concurrent periodization, and block periodization are some of the many types of periodization programs that you can find.

Unfortunately there is little consensus on terminology or definition, feeding the confusion for people looking to learn about periodization even more.  Add to that the ability to essentially say anything you want on the internet without needing any scientific validity and you’ll find a dozen different “best” ways to get strong.

But the real question still remains – does strength training periodization even matter?  And if so, what type of periodization is best?

 

Effect of Periodized Versus Non-periodized Programs on Strength

Since the rehabilitation setting does such as poor job at implementing periodization into programs when returning from injury, we should start by establishing the need for periodization.

Anytime I have a research question in regard to Strength and Conditioning, I head over to Chris Beardsley and Bret Contreras’ website Strength and Conditioning Research.  Chris has an excellent article on our current scientific understanding on strength training.

The article reviewed 7 studies comparing periodized and non-periodized programs on strength in untrained individuals.  Of these studies, 4 reported significant benefits of periodization over no periodization.

Similarly, there were 7 studies comparing periodized and non-periodized program on strength in trained individuals.  Of these 7 studies, 4 reported significant benefits of periodization and the remainder reported no differences. Using periodization may therefore have a beneficial effect on strength gains in both the trained and untrained population.

I wouldn’t say the research is overwhelming, but leans towards at least some form of periodization being more effective than using no periodization at all.  I think we would all anecdotally agree with this as well.

 

Effect of Linear Versus Non-Linear Periodization

Now that we have established we should use some form of periodization, the focus now shifts on determining what the best form of periodization may be to improve strength.

Lets simplify, and perhaps oversimplify, the forms of periodization for this conversation as either linear periodization or non-linear periodization.

Linear periodization refers to the slow decrease in reps and increase in load.  For example a 4-phase program may look like this:

  • Program 1 – 3 x 12 with a light load
  • Program 2 – 3 x 8 with a moderate load
  • Program 3 – 4 x 5 with a moderate to heavy load
  • Program 4 – 5 x 3 with a heavy load

Linear Periodization

As the reps go down, the weight goes up.  This has been the most classic form of periodization used for the last several decades.

Antagonists to the linear periodization model often point out that the benefits seen early in the program in regard to strength and hypertrophy are not maintained throughout the program as the focus continuously shifts from program to program.

This has lead to several variations of non-linear periodization, including one of the most common, undulated periodization.  Undulated periodization involves continuously shift the focus of the program on either a daily or weekly cycle.

A weekly undulated periodization program may look like this:

  • Week 1 – 2×15
  • Week 2 – 3×8
  • Week 3 – 5×5

While a daily undulated periodization program may look like this:

  • Monday – 2×15
  • Wednesday 3×8
  • Friday 5×5

Undulated Periodization

While many have stated that undulated periodization is more beneficial at eliciting strength gains, does the research agree?

A recent meta-analysis was publish in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.  They reviewed hundreds of articles and ultimately select 17 that met all their strict criteria for analysis.

Of these 17 articles, here are a few bits of information:

  • 12 compared linear periodization to daily undulating periodization.  3 compared linear to weekly undulating.  1 study compared all 3.
  • 7 studies were on untrained people (<1 year experience), 10 on trained (> 1 year), and no studies included advanced trainees (>5 years).
  • 16 out of 17 studies reported significant increase in strength in both linear and undulated periodization.  12 studies found no difference between the two periodization models.  3 found undulating better than linear and 2 found the opposite.

The overall meta-analysis also agree and the article concluded that there is no difference in strength gains between linear and undulated periodization.

However, when analyzing trained individuals, people that had previous experience with linear periodization had an improvement in strength when switching to undulated periodization.  There was no difference between the linear or undulated periodization in untrained individuals.

Based on this it appears that as your training age increases, you may need to change your training stimulus to maximize your gains.  However, linear periodization will work fine in new trainees.

Realize that the majority of articles you read on the internet are geared towards the very small percentage of people that fit into the advanced trainee grouping, when in reality, this is not what 95% of us see on a regular basis, especially in the rehabilitation and general population personal training worlds.  Sure, advanced periodization programs are needed to get from 500 lbs to 600 lbs on a lift, but probably not as much from getting from 100 lbs to 200 lbs.

Linear periodization offers a great way to introduce and teach movement patterns with a lower load and higher rep scheme, then as the movement skill is perfected, the load can safely increase.

 

Periodization for Strength Training and Rehabilitation

Because the topic of periodization is so large, important, and so often neglected in the rehab and personal training setting, this month’s Inner Circle Webinar is going to be on Periodization for Strength Training and Rehabilitation.  In this webinar, I am going to discuss the above concepts in much more detail and show you how we periodize some of our programs for healthy people and those coming back from injury in the physical therapy setting.

The webinar is Monday May 18th at 8:00 PM EST and will be recorded for Inner Circle members.

 

 

 

 

How to Improve Overhead Shoulder Mobility

The latest Inner Circle webinar recording on my How to Improve Overhead Shoulder Mobility is now available.

 

How to Improve Overhead Shoulder Mobility

Improving Overhead Shoulder MobilityThis month’s Inner Circle webinar is on how to improve overhead shoulder mobility.  In this webinar I’ll discuss:

  • We we are losing overhead shoulder mobility
  • Why it matters
  • The 4 main reasons why we lose overhead mobility
  • How the body compensates when we lose overhead mobility
  • How to assess for a loss of overhead shoulder mobility
  • What you MUST stop doing immediately with people that have lost overhead mobility – you are making them worse!
  • Corrective exercises to enhance overhead position
  • Manual therapy techniques to improve mobility

 

To access this webinar:

4 Ways to Improve Overhead Shoulder Mobility

4 Ways to Improve Overhead Shoulder MobilityOne of the most common areas we attempt to improve in clients at Champion PT and Performance is overhead shoulder mobility.  If you really think about it, we don’t need full overhead shoulder mobility much during our daily lives.  So our bodies adapt and this seems to be an movement that is lost in many people over time if not nourished.

I’m often amazed at how many people have a significant loss of overhead mobility and really had no idea!

That’s not really the issue.  The problem occurs when we start to use overhead mobility again, especially when doing it during our workouts and training.  Exercises like a press, thruster, snatch, overhead squat, kipping pull up, toes to bar, handstand push up, wall ball, and many more all use the shoulder at end range of movement.  But here are the real issues:

  • Add using the shoulder to max end range of overhead mobility and we can run into trouble
  • Add loading during a resisted exercise and we can run into trouble
  • Add repetitions of this at end range and we can run into trouble
  • Add speed (and thus force) to the exercise and we can run into trouble

 

4 Ways to Improve Overhead Shoulder Mobility

In this video I explain the 4 most common reasons why you lose overhead shoulder mobility and can work on to improve this movement:

  1. The shoulder
  2. The scapula
  3. The thoracic spine
  4. The lumbopelvic area

The first three are commonly address, but not so for the lumbopelvic area, which is often neglected.  I’m going to expand on this even more in this month’s Inner Circle webinar.  More info is below the video:

 

Improving Overhead Shoulder Mobility

This month’s Inner Circle webinar is going to expand on this topic and discuss how and why you want to improve overhead shoulder mobility.  In this webinar I’ll discuss the importance of overhead mobility, how to assess the 4 most common causes of loss of mobility we discussed above, what corrective exercises to perform, and tips for manual therapy.  The live webinar will be on Monday April 20th at 8:00 PM EST, however will be recorded for those that can not attend live.