How to Prepare Before You Throw – Part 2: Prepare Your Throwing

As I said in part 1 of this 2-part article on How to Prepare Before Your Throwing Program, one common theme that I often hear when players describe how they got hurt was that they did not properly warm up and prepare themselves to throw.

To prepare before your throwing program, you really need to do two things: 1) Prepare your body and 2) Prepare your throwing.  If you haven’t yet, please go back and read part 1 of this article to learn how to prepare your body:

 

How to Prepare Before Your Throwing Program – Part 2: Prepare Your Throwing

Now that your body is ready to roll and start your throwing program, I want to shift gears and talk about how to use your throwing program to prepare to throw.  I think it is really import to “prepare to throw, not throw to prepare.”

What I mean by that is that you need to make sure you are properly warmed up, even within your throwing program, before you can start your throwing “work.”  You shouldn’t just jump on the mound, or throw at full intensity, or quickly progress to long tossing.  That is throwing to prepare, and as I stated in part 1 of this article, I don’t want aggressive throwing to be the first things your body feels.

To prepare to throw, you need to prepare your body (again, in part 1) and then prepare your throwing program.  There is a BIG difference between your “warm-up” throwing and your “work” throwing.

Would you ever just throw your max weight on the bar and start squatting or deadlifting without doing warm up sets?  Never, right?  In strength and conditioning we usually incorporate a gradual increase in load with the weight of an exercise before getting to the weight we want to use to train.  You have warm-up sets and then work sets.  As an example, if you are supposed to perform 5 sets of 5 reps of deadlifts at 285 lbs, if you first set is 185, second set 205, and third set 225, those don’t count as your 5×5 work sets.

The same goes with throwing.

 

Prepare to Throw Step 4 – Ease Into Throwing

I’ve played catch with 100’s of professional baseball pitchers.  I honestly only remember one that would start throwing 90 MPH at my knees by the third or forth throw (and he’s been injured his entire career).  Big leaguers get it and gradually get loose.  You’d actually be surprised at how easy they actually play catch initially as they warm up.

On the flip side, one of the more common tweaks I make to my younger athletes is to ease into throwing.  Not a week goes by without someone gunning a ball at my ankles on the 3rd throw (I love you GD…).

This is extremely stressful on the body.  Remember throwing itself is stressful.  You have to gradually apply that stress to get the tissue used to the force.

Not all throwing has to be designed to gain arm strength or velocity.  Some throwing should be more similar to just riding a bike with your arm to get blood flow and gradually apply stress to the elasticity of the tissue.

 

Prepare to Throw Step 5 – Let The Distance Dictate the Intensity

The next step to prepare to throw builds on step 4.  Now that you’ve played light catch to get loose, it’s time to start walking back and increasing the distance.

Distance in your long toss program is a variable we use to adjust your intensity.  Realistically there isn’t much difference between throwing with full intensity at 150 feet or 200 feet.  Full intensity is pretty much full intensity.

Again, resist the urge to start throwing on a line at new distances.  Rather, I tell my athletes to “let the distance dictate the intensity,” meaning throw the ball with a bit of an arc to firmly hit your partner in the chest on the descent.

If the ball would sail past your partner another 100 feet if they missed your throw, you are throwing too hard for the stretch out phase of throwing.

baseball long toss arc

 

There will be time to throw on a line, that is next step…

 

Prepare to Throw Step 6 – Get Your Work In

OK, you’ve made it!  You prepared your body.  You’re mobile.  You activated your muscles.  You did a dynamic warm up.  You eased into throwing and long toss.  Congrats!  Now you can “throw.”

Just to reiterate, there is a difference between “warm-up” throwing and “work” throwing.  Step 6 is now incorporating your “work” throwing, whatever that may be for you that day.

It could be long toss, weighted balls, bullpen work, even throwing in a game.  That is your “work” throwing and you are now ready for it.

 

By going through the proper steps to prepare to throw you’ll find that you actually get better work in and throw better, plus you’ll be much more resilient to injuries.  These are some of the key steps I outline to all of my athletes and what we follow in the big leagues.

 

Want to Learn More?

This month’s Inner Circle webinar will be on How to Prepare Before a Throwing Program.  I’m going to dive into these topics in even more depth, including showing more of the specific drills I perform, for those that want to learn even more.  The live webinar will on Tuesday 2/24/15 at 8:00 PM EST but I will also record and upload soon after.  Inner Circle members can sign up for the webinar in the Inner Circle Dashboard

 

I also have a free 45-minute video on How Baseball Players Can Safely Enhance Performance While Reducing Injuries.  Enter your name and email below and I will send you access to the video as well as a handout of the above arm care warm-up exercises that you can take to the field:

How to Prepare Before You Throw – Part 1: Prepare Your Body

Working with so many injured pitchers over my career, one common theme that I often hear when players describe how they got hurt was that they did not properly warm up and prepare themselves to throw.  I’m not sure if this is always the true cause of the players’ injuries, however, I hear it often enough that it has to have some significance.

throwing long toss programThis seems to make sense, though.  Throwing is very dynamic and aggressive on the body.  In fact, it is the fastest known motion that the human body performs!  If it could, your shoulder would rotate a full 360 degrees around up to 27 times in 1 second!  That is unbelievable.

I often say injury is just a simple physics equation.  Force = mass x acceleration.  The faster your body moves and the harder you throw, the more forceful it is on your body.

Because of this, you can see how just grabbing a baseball and starting to throw can be stressful on the body.  Throwing is so dynamic and forceful that you want to do your best to put yourself in a position to succeed before you start throwing.  This will help foster a long and healthy career.

To prepare before your throwing program, you really need to do two things: 1) Prepare your body and 2) Prepare your throwing.  In this two part article I will discuss both.

 

How to Prepare Before Your Throwing Program – Part 1 – Prepare Your Body

It’s funny how common sense tells us to prepare our body for common athletic activities, like running and jumping, yet people often neglect throwing.  The first three steps to prepare before your throwing program involve getting your body ready.

 

Prepare to Throw Step 1 – Get Loose

The first step in preparing your body to throw is to get loose and work on your mobility.  We’ve studied 1000’s of baseball pitchers and have found a few things when it comes to throwing a baseball:

  1. Throwing a baseball causes your muscles to tighten and you loose mobility of your shoulder and elbow
  2. Not addressing this becomes cumulative and you eventually get a little tighter and tighter over the course of a season
  3. Working to maintain your motion is effective and can prevent lose of motion

One of the phrases I use a lot with my athletes is “I want you to be you BEFORE you pick up a ball.”  What that means is, if you just threw 100 pitches yesterday in a game, I know you are tight.  If you ignore it and pick up and ball and try to throw, you are setting yourself up for trauma.  Throwing will loosen you up (before you tighten up again), but it’s a much more aggressive way to get your mobility back.

Rather, perform some self-myofascial release by using a foam roller, massage stick, and baseball ball.  Here are the ones I use the most on Amazon and because the foam roller is hollow, you can put your other tools inside and all fit nicely in your gear bag:

  • Foam roller – One of the best and hollow to put your other tools in it in your gear bag.
  • Massage stick – The best one on the market, the other more popular ones don’t compare.
  • Trigger point ball – You can use a baseball, but I also like the reaction balls.  The nubs help you get in there and hold it in position on the wall.

How to prepare before your throwing programYou should focus on the entire body with particular emphasis on your lat, back of the shoulder, rotator cuff, pec, biceps, and forearm.  You should avoid the front of your shoulder.  There really aren’t a lot of muscles there and your just smashing your rotator cuff and biceps tendons.

Hit each spot for 30-60 seconds and hold on any really tender spots for 10 seconds.

Notice how I intentionally didn’t say to “stretch” your arm or perform a “sleeper stretch” (here is why you shouldn’t perform the sleeper stretch).  Most baseball pitchers are too loose to stretch effectively and they end up torquing themselves too much and making things worse.  There is a difference between muscles and joints, it’s possible to have tight muscles and loose joints.

There is one shoulder stretch that is effective on the muscles and not too aggressive on the joint, the cross body stretch I call the Genie Stretch.  This can be enhanced even more by using a trigger point ball in the posterior shoulder muscles.  You can and should stretch your forearm, you can’t really hurt yourself here.

 

Prepare to Throw Step 2 – Warm-Up Your Muscles

Now that you have worked on restoring mobility back to your baseline BEFORE you throw, it is time to get your muscles ready to throw.  In the strength and conditioning world, we refer to this as “activating” the muscles.

You want to hit all the muscles and movement patterns that are need to accelerate and decelerate your arm.  These essentially include the scapula and rotator cuff muscles.  By turning on these muscles, the body will be better prepared for the upcoming activities and throwing.

Shoulder activation throwing programThe simplest way to do this is with resistance tubing.  We use a combination of tools at Champion, but tubing is quick, easy, and portable.

You do need to be careful of your volume of exercises.  These warm-ups are designed to prepare the muscle, not fatigue them, and are not a substitute for strengthening the muscles.  That is a completely different program to be performed at a different time.  We use tubing to simply activate the muscles with low volume sets and reps of 2×10

I use Theraband tubing with handles.  They are the best and far superior to the cheap bands you can buy at the local stores, which have odd resistance and can lose resistance over time.  They are even ~$15 on Amazon.  You can attach the band to a fence or post, or take turns holding with a partner.

I like the tubing with handles and want you to have to grip the tubing, rather that velcro strap them around your wrist.  Grip the tubing helps warm up your grip and forearm muscles and also has a reflexive stimulus to your rotator cuff to engage.

Here is a link to Amazon.com to purchase the Theraband Exercise Tubing I use in the video at the end of this article.  I recommend the green band for Little League age, the blue band for middle school and early high school age, and the black band for the older or experienced pitcher:

 

Prepare to Throw Step 3 – Getting Moving

The third step to prepare to throw now involves dynamic movements.  You can see that we are building on a logical progression here: restore mobility, activate the muscles, and perform dynamic mobility exercises for movement prep.

Throwing is a very dynamic activity, obviously, that needs elasticity of the muscles.  Stretching and mobility work alone will not turn on the elastic components of your muscles.  Similar to my comments above on stretching, I don’t want a baseball being the first elastic stimulus your body faces.  I want to slowly work up to that so it is less traumatic and aggressive of a jump in stress on the tissue.

We want to dynamically move the joints and have the muscles produce quick contractions,.  This helps prepare the muscle for  by improving mobility and activation.

At Champion, our athletes have a whole portion of their program dedicated to these three steps and assuring that the entire body is prepared to throw, however, I demonstrate a simple arm version of this in the video below.  Perform this and you’ll be head and shoulders above most other athletes.

For pitchers, we use movement prep exercises that mobilize and activate the muscles groups needed to throw, like the chest, posterior shoulder, and rotator cuff.  It doesn’t take a lot of repetitions to prepare the body.

 

My Warmup Program Before Throwing

Perform this 3-minute arm warm up program prior to starting your throwing program for the day.  This is our bare minimum program that we teach our athletes that are new to the concepts of preparing their body before throwing.  As you can see, you don’t need dozens of exercises or many sets and reps, even just performing this quick warm-up will put you in a more advantageous position to throw than most other athletes.

It is quick and easy and can be performed on the field before practice.  Look out into the bullpen next time you are at a MLB game and you’ll see many players performing this during the game.

I’ve adjusted the order of how I prepare the body a little bit since the filming of this video, so it is a little out of order per the above information, but serves as a great example of a quick and easy 3-minute warm up to be performed after your self-myofascial release and before throwing.

 

In part 2, which will available next week, I will discuss the next three steps involved in preparing to throw and how I actually start off my throwing programs.

 

Want to Learn More?

This month’s Inner Circle webinar will be on How to Prepare Before a Throwing Program.  I’m going to dive into these topics in even more depth, including showing more of the specific drills I perform, for those that want to learn even more.  The live webinar will on Tuesday 2/24/15 at 8:00 PM EST but I will also record and upload soon after.  Inner Circle members can sign up for the webinar in the Inner Circle Dashboard

 

I also have a free 45-minute video on How Baseball Players Can Safely Enhance Performance While Reducing Injuries.  Enter your name and email below and I will send you access to the video as well as a handout of the above arm care warm-up exercises that you can take to the field:

Are We Missing the Boat on Core Training?

A lot of attention has been placed on core training over the last several years, both in the rehab and fitness industry.  I recently watched my friend Nick Tumminello’s latest product Core Training: Facts, Fallacies, and Top Techniques and it made me think (more on Nick’s product, which is on sale this week, below).

We’ve made exceptional progress in our understanding of the core and have shifted away from isolated ab training to integrated core training.  My DVD with Eric Cressey on Functional Stability Training for the Core discussed this at length and showed a nice system to effectively train every aspect of the core.

However, the more I read on the internet the more I wonder if we are still missing the boat a little bit.  I’ll chalk this up as a another pendulum swing, but while we have progressed away from isolated abdominal exercises like sit ups, I wonder if we have swung too far to an extreme and started to focus only on isometric anti-movement exercises for the core.

 

Anti-Movement Core Exercises

Realistically the core helps stabilize the body and allow a transfer of energy.

Anti-movement exercises, such as planks for anti-extension, should be the foundation of the basic levels of core training.

Plank - core training

Once your baseline ability to maintain an isometric posture with the core is obtained, the next progression is to control limb movement with a stable core.  This involves combining upper body and lower body movements while maintain a stable core.  An example of this would be an anti-extension drill with TRX Rip Trainer.

However, the core does need to “move” during normal function.  It rotates, bends, flexes, extends, and all of these at once!  Should we train this?

 

Don’t Forget the Trunk is Designed to Move

I would say we should.  I think the difference here is to train these movements within a stable range of motion.  We should be training the body to work within it’s normal mobility, but to stabilize at end range of motion.

We get into problems with core movements, like rotation, when we depend on our static stabilizers, like the joints and ligaments, to control end range instead of our muscular dynamic stabilizers.

Perhaps the goals should be to train to control the core at end range of motion.

 

End Range Core Stability

These types of drills would include chops, lifts, push-pull movements on a cable or Keiser system, and medicine ball drills.  You are probably doing these already, right?

They all involve a transfer of energy from the limbs through the core.  The core needs to move during these exercises, but you are working in the mid ranges of motion and controlling end range.  These should also progress to include functional movements patterns like swings, throws, and kicks.

In the video above, I combine the act of throwing and decelerating in the half kneel position.  This takes the lower half out of it and requires the core to stabilize.

I guess the point is that we shouldn’t be afraid to move the core.  That is not beneficial to teach our patients, clients, and athletes.  Rather, train the core to move and stabilize at end range of motion to take stress off the structures of the spine.

 

Core Training: Facts, Fallacies, and Top Techniques

If you want to learn more about training the core, Nick’s program Core Training: Facts, Fallacies, and Top Techniques is on sale this week.  I watched Nick’s presentation last week and enjoyed it.  Nick does a great job discussing some of these concepts.  Click below for details:

 

How to Cue the Scapula During Shoulder Exercises

In today’s video, I share my thoughts on the common cue of retracting your scapulae together while performing shoulder exercises.  I’m not sure this is the most advantageous cue, despite it’s popularity.  Instead, I focus on facilitating normal scapulohumeral motion.  I don’t want to restrict the scapula while moving the arm.

Learn more about how to cue the scapula during shoulder exercises in the video below.

 

How to Cue the Scapula During Shoulder Exercises

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Learn How I Evaluate and Treat the Shoulder

Want to learn exactly how I evaluate and treat the shoulder?  My 8-week online seminar at ShoulderSeminar.com covers everything you need to know from evaluation, to manual dynamic stabilization drills, to manual therapy of the shoulder, to specific rehab for stiff shoulders, instability, SLAP tears, and rotator cuff injuries.

ShoulderSeminar.com is on sale this month for $150 off.  This huge sale goes until the end of October 31st at midnight EST.  Sign up today and also get access to RehabWebinars.com for free for 1-month.  Click here to enroll in the program today, the sale ends at the end of the month!

ShoulderSeminar.com

The Influence of Pain on Shoulder Biomechanics

The influence of pain on how well the shoulder moves and functions has been researched several times in the past.  It is often though that impaired movement patterns may lead to pain the shoulder.

A recent two part study published in JOSPT analyzed the biomechanics of the shoulder, scapula, and clavicle in people with and without shoulder pain to determine in differences existed between the groups.  Part one assessed the scapula and clavicle.  Part two assess the shoulder.

The subjects with pain were not in acute pain, but rather had chronic issues with their shoulders for an average of 10 years.  The authors used electromagnetic sensors that were rigidly fixed to transcortical bone screws and inserted into each of the bones to accurately track motion analysis.

The studies were interesting and worth a full read, but I wanted to discuss some of the highlights.

 

The Influence of Pain on Shoulder Biomechanics

In regard to the scapula, the authors found:

  • Upward rotation of the scapula less in subjects with pain
  • This decrease in upward rotation was present at lower angles of elevation, not in the overhead position

It is important to assess scapular upward rotation in people with shoulder pain, particularly emphasizing the beginning of motion.  Realize that no differences were observed in upward rotation past 60 degrees of elevation, implying that the symptomatic group’s upward rotation caught up to the asymptomatic group.  This may imply that there is a timing issue, more than a true lack of scapular upward elevation issue.  They are upwardly rotating, but perhaps just too late?

The study also found the following in regard to shoulder motion:

  • Shoulder elevation was greater in subjects with pain
  • This increase in shoulder elevation was present at lower angles of elevation, not in the overhead position

Noticed how I intentionally presented it similar to the scapula findings?  if you put the two finings together, it appears that people with shoulder pain have a higher ratio of shoulder movement in comparison to scapular movement at the beginning of arm elevation.  The shoulder caught up again overhead, so it appears that the timing between shoulder and scapular movement may have an impact.

The Influence of Pain on Shoulder Mechanics

As you can see, it is important to assess both shoulder and scapular movement together, and not in isolation, as movement impairments at one join likely influence the other.  The brain is exceptionally good at getting from point A to point B and finding the path of least resistance to get there.

I should note that in studies like this, it is impossible to tell if the pain caused the movement changes or the movement changes caused the pain.  So keep that in mind.  Regardless of causation, our treatment programs should be designed with these findings in mind.

There are so many other great findings in the study that I encourage everyone to explore these further, but I thought these findings were worth discussing.  Based on these findings, it appears worthwhile to assess the relative contribution of scapular and shoulder movement during the initial phases of shoulder elevation.

Interested in advancing your understanding of the shoulder?  My extensive online program teaching you exactly how I evaluate and treat the shoulder at ShoulderSeminar.com is on sale now for $150 off!  That is a huge discount that you don’t want to miss!  Click here to enroll in the program today, the sale ends at the end of the month!

ShoulderSeminar.com

 

 

 

A New Exercise for Shoulder, Scapula, and Core Control

Today’s post in a guest post from my friend Tad Sayce, who is a strength coach in the Boston area that specializes in swimmers.  Tad shares a great exercise video that works shoulder, scapula, and core control.  I’m a big fan of “big bang for your buck” exercises that promote strength and stability in one exercise, which is something we talk a lot about in Functional Stability Training.  Tad came up with one that I am going start trying with my athletes.

Band Resisted Horizontal Abduction with a Press

As a former competitive swimmer, I can closely relate to the overhead athlete and the complications that can arise at the shoulder. As a strength and conditioning coach working predominately with swimmers, I am constantly looking to improve the durability of the shoulder. It is widely accepted that the shoulder operates at maximum efficiency in the presence of a stable base at the core. While I am a believer in the use of isolated exercises, today’s focus will be that of a more integrated effort. The video below demonstrates an exercise that facilitates shoulder, scapular and core activation: Band Resisted Horizontal Abduction with a Press. 

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As the name implies, the exercise combines resisted horizontal abduction with an anti-rotation press. It is encouraged to first master each exercise in isolation before attempting to combine them. This exercise is great for educating athletes about proper scapular movement, and also demonstrating the ability to maintain position in the presence of increasing tension. I particularly like this exercise because it incorporates both dynamic and static efforts. I typically program this exercise for sets of 5 holding for 5 seconds, or sets of 8 holding for 2 seconds.

About Tad Sayce

tad-sayceTad Sayce, Head Coach and Owner of Sayco Performance Athletics, located in Waltham, MA. Tad is a Strength and Conditioning specialist with a strong interest in the sport of swimming. Formerly, Tad was a competitive swimmer in the Big 10 Conference and Olympic Trials qualifier, as well as a USA Swimming club coach.  For more information please visit www.saycoperformance.com.

Assessing Shoulder and Scapular Dynamic Mobility

Assessing Shoulder and Scapular Dynamic MobilityA thorough assessment of the shoulder must look at the posture and dynamic mobility of both the shoulder and scapula.  More importantly, we need to assess the interaction between the shoulder and scapula and not look at the two in isolation.

Assessing Shoulder and Scapular Dynamic Mobility

Altered scapular dynamic movement can be influenced by many things, so a thorough assessment is needed.  Here is a clip from my brand new educational program with Eric Cressey, Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body. This is part of a lab demonstration of Eric Cressey and I assessing overhead arm elevation and the quality of shoulder and scapular mobility.  In this clip you can clearly see a side-to-side difference and we discuss some of the potential implications:

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This is just a very small clip of some of the great information we cover in our new program, which is on sale for $20 off this week (sale ends Sunday May 18th at midnight EST).   Click here or the image below to order now before the sale ends!

Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body

Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body

My latest educational program with Eric Cressey, Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body, is now available!  

FST for the Upper Body is the third program in out Functional Stability Training system, adding to the popular Core and Lower Body programs.  When Eric and I started to brainstorm what we wanted to teach with these programs, we wanted to share our approaches to rehabilitation and performance training, but more importantly how we integrate the two together.  This makes the FST products a great resource for any rehabilitation, fitness, or performance specialist.

 

Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body

Functional Stability Training for the Upper BodyIn order to function properly, our body needs to be strong and mobile, but control and stabilization of this mobility is often less than optimal.  Unfortunately, stabilization is often overlooked in the design of rehabilitation and performance programs.  Traditional program design relies too much on mobilizing what is tight and strengthening what is weak.  We are missing the boat on stabilization and it’s effect on enhancing optimal movement patterns.

Proper function of the upper extremities is complicated and requires the arm to work in conjunction with the scapula, thorax, cervical spine, and core to provide mobility, strength, and power to the entire body.  Any deficits in stability throughout the body’s kinetic chain can lead to injury, dysfunction, and a decrease in performance in the upper body.  FST for the Upper Body aims to help formulate rehabilitation and training programs designed to optimize how the upper body functions.

By addressing alignment, strength, mobility, and dynamic motor control, you can maximize your rehabilitation and training programs to reach optimal performance.

Think about a few of these:

  • Can the lumbopelvic and thoracic regions impact shoulder function?
  • Can the cervical spine impact the elbow?
  • Can scapular position decrease shoulder performance?

The answer to all of these questions is ABSOLUTELY!  Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body discusses all this and more, showing you exactly how you can assess and correct issues within the kinetic chain to optimize stability and performance of the upper extremity.

Here is an outline of the presentations and lab demonstrations that we perform.  Eric and I combine presentations with real life examples so you can see how we both manage specific individuals based on our assessments.  You get to see Eric and I at work together working with people:

  • How posture and position influence upper extremity function
  • Understanding and managing joint hypermobility
  • Understanding the elbow: functional anatomy, common injuries, and conditions
  • Elbow injuries: evaluation and management
  • Assessment and management of thoracic mobility restrictions
  • Assessment and management of muscles imbalances of the shoulder and scapula
  • Assessment and management of scapular position
  • Assessment and management of elbow epicondylitis

 

Optimal Shoulder Performance

For those that are familiar with Eric and I’s other education program Optimal Shoulder Performance, Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body takes this information to the next level by showing how we integrate the entire body to optimize upper body function.  

FST for the Upper Body integrates the concepts learned from FST for the Core and FST for the Lower Body, and serves as the sequel to their previous educational program, Optimal Shoulder Performance.  FST for the Upper Body is perfect as a stand alone program, but also builds off Optimal Shoulder Performance to help take your knowledge to the next level.  Putting the information from all of these products together will give you a complete understanding of how we approach our integration of rehabilitation and performance.

We had great reviews from the live filming of this program:

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Special Sale Price This Week Only

Functional Stability Training for the Upper Body is available now and is on sale for $20 off to celebrate the launch.  

If you haven’t purchased any of the other FST products in the past, you can get all three FST programs for the Upper Body, Core, and Lower Body together in one bundle and save another $20.

These special sale prices are for this week only and end Sunday May 18th at midnight EST.  Click below to learn more and order before this sale price ends!

 

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